Any secure RFID or card based system (e.g. ticketing, payment, access …) implies the need for secure authentication based on cryptographic mechanisms. A Key Management System (KMS) is necessary to generate, store and administrate cryptographic keys and credentials. In general the keys are generated using a secure crypto unit which is the core component of the system. The security level of this crypto unit defines the overall security of the system. All generated keys never leave the unit in plain text. The access to the system is secured by a mental key scheme combined with a two factor authentication. Any time a secure credential (contact based card or contactless token) is presented at a point of acceptance (e.g. POS terminal, ticket machine, ATM, …) the authenticity and integrity of the key material is proven (usually by a challenge – response mechanism). Related systems are usually personalization systems and Security Access Modules (SAM).